Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.  EU and UK negotiators have reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the future EU-UK relationship on 23 March 2018. The UK has launched the formal process of withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing the European Council`s intention to leave the EU. On 19 December 2019, the British government tabled the amended EU Bill (Withdrawal Agreement) in the House of Commons. The aim of the bill is to “implement the agreement between the UK and the EU, in accordance with Article 50, paragraph 2, of the Treaty on the European Union, which sets out the terms of the UK`s exit from the EU, and to adopt other provisions relating to the EU.” The bill and the accompanying explanations are available on the following link: 7.After Section 78, insert safeguards arising from the EU withdrawal agreement… On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and its accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e.
at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.  A number of clauses in the previous version of the act have been removed. These include: the withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, in order to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.
 That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratifying the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU at 11 .m.